The curriculum of a course is basically what a student gets to learn in an educational setting, the topics they cover, the subject they learn on, and the educational experiences they get. The curriculum is important because it gives an outline, as well as a detailed description of the course the students have enrolled for. Curriculum development is the process of planning, and implementing a curriculum. It also involves evaluating and improving the existing curriculum to enable maximum student success.
There are two types of curriculum models:
• The Product Model: The model deals with the grades, results acquired by the students at the end of the course.
• The Process model: This model deals with how the content is taught, how knowledge is imparted, and the process by which the student learns.
There are three types of curriculum designs:
1) Subject-centered curriculum design: It is a model in which the center of focus of the curriculum is the subject being taught. It focuses on the list of items that the teachers need to teach their students in the duration of the course. For example, consider the subject biology, and the topic to be covered as Cancer. While teaching the same, the teacher is instructed to mention in detail the types of cancer and explain in detail the case study of a cancer patient X. This is a commonly used model across schools and colleges. The model contains what is the topic that needs to be studied and how the topics should be studied. The drawback of this design is that it forgets the individuality of the learner.
2) Learner-centered curriculum design: The center of focus in this design is the students – their needs, interests, goals, and capabilities. The model pays attention to the fact that each student is a different individual and has their own style and pace of learning. It aims to empower students and does not subject all of them to one standardized curriculum. It allows students to select their forms of assessment and provides them flexibility on the same. This in turn serves to motivate the students. The drawback of this design is that it is intensive and time-consuming.
3) Problem-centered curriculum design: This is an authentic form of learning where a student is posed with a problem and is asked to solve it. They face a real-life situation for which they have to figure out a solution. This can make the student more creative and innovative and the learning process a relevant one. An Example of this would be to make a student learn how the engine of a bike works by giving them a problematic engine. The drawback of this method is that it might not suit all students.
And thus, the curriculum designer must consider all of these methods and ascertain the factors that affect the learning of a student. It is necessary to formulate a suitable curriculum that works efficiently for the educational institution.